Archaeologist Finds 7,000-Year-Old Chalcolithic Bakery at Kaleto Fortress in Bulgaria’s Mezdra
A relatively well-preserved prehistoric bakery from the Chalcolithic (Aeneolithic, Copper Age) has been discovered during the recent excavations of the Kaleto Fortress in the northwestern Bulgarian town of Mezdra.
The latest discovery of the team of lead archaeologist Georgi Ganetsovski from the Vratsa Regional Museum of History is seen as evidence that Mezdra’s Kaleto Fortress, a 7,000-year-old fortified settlement with traces of civilized human life from all archaeological periods from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages, was a thriving center of crafts and agricultural production around 5,000 BC.
The fortress in Bulgaria’s Mezdra has been partly restored and turned into a cultural tourism attraction under the name Archaeological Complex “Kaleto”; however, both the fortress and the site around it still warrant further excavations because they have not been fully researched.
(“Kale” is a Turkish word meaning “fortress” left over from the Ottoman period commonly used for the numerous ruins of ancient and medieval fortresses all over Bulgaria, whose proper names are sometimes unknown.)
Next to the Chalcolithic facility for making and baking bread, the archaeologists have found four sets of millstones which were used by the prehistoric people to grind the spelt (Einkorn wheat) they grew in order to produce flour, reports local news site Kmeta.
“The discovery of the bakery corresponds directly to the other craftsmen’s facilities that we have discovered nearby – a metallurgical workshop for the production of copper items, a ceramics workshop, and a workshop for the production of bone artifacts. All these finds testify to the fact that in prehistoric times Kaleto was a thriving center of crafts,” says the lead archaeologist Georgi Ganetsovski.
During its latest archaeological excavations at the Kaleto Fortress in Bulgaria’s Mezdra, his team has found a wide range of other structures and artifacts.
These include a Chalcolithic home which was burned down as well as three Ancient Thracian ritual pits from the 7th-6th century BC, i.e. the Iron Age, filled with ceramic items.
Another of the recent finds is a defense rampart wall built during the Early Iron Age which runs parallel to the fortress wall from the Ancient Roman period.
The more interesting artifacts from the 2015 digs at the Kaleto Fortress include a zoomorphic figurine of a bull, two ceramic balls from a slingshot, a fragment from lid lock with a solar image, a granite cone, flint scrapers used for the procession of animal skin and wood, a bone spatula, stone hammers, and a flint lamella.
These finds have been construed as revealing that the site of the Kaleto Fortress in Mezdra has a greater potential for further archaeological discoveries.
“The results from our month-long excavations in the northwestern part of the rock ridge show that the tale of the Kaleto Fortress is continuing,” Ganetsovski is quoted as saying.
In addition to its rich archaeological, historical, and cultural heritage from the Antiquity (Thracian and Roman) and the Middle Ages, the Kaleto Fortress is also known for the discovery of a shrine of the prehistoric deity Taurus.
In 2008, Bulgarian archaeologists led by Georgi Ganetsovski found there a shrine of the pagan deity Taurus modeled after the now extinct cattle species aurochs.
The prehistoric people believed that the Taurus supported the world on its horns. The finds there included two aurochs skulls and a stone sculpture of an aurochs head.
Also check out our other recent stories about the Kaleto Fortress in Bulgaria’s Mezdra:
The Archaeological Complex “Kaleto” in the northwestern Bulgarian town of Mezdra is a 7,000-year-old fortified settlement with traces of civilized human life from all archaeological periods from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages. (“Kale” is a Turkish word meaning “fortress” left over from the Ottoman period commonly used for the numerous ruins of ancient and medieval fortresses all over Bulgaria, whose proper names are sometimes unknown.)
The Kaleto Fortress is located in the southwestern corner of today’s Bulgarian town of Mezdra on a rocky hill on the left bank of the Iskar River. The earliest traces of civilized human life found there date back to the Chalcolithic (Aeneolithic, Copper Age), to the end of the 5th and the first half of the 4th millennium BC. The remains of two fortified settlements from this period have been discovered on the hill, both of which were destroyed by forest fires.
The Chalcolithic finds reveal that the settlement was inhabited by agriculturalists and craftsmen who specialized in the production and decoration of ceramics and jewelry. In 2008, Bulgarian archaeologists found there a shrine of the pagan deity Taurus modeled after the now extinct cattle species aurochs.
The prehistoric people believed that the Taurus supported the world on its horns. The finds there included two aurochs skulls and a stone sculpture of an aurochs head. This made the shrine unique in Europe. Only two similar Taurus deity shrines have been found – one in Egypt and another one in Asia Minor.
On the same spot where the Taurus shrine is located the Bulgarian archaeologists have discovered a 2,500-year-old shrine of the Ancient Thracian tribe Triballi who were an autonomous Thracian tribe in today’s Northwest Bulgaria sometimes allied with the Odrysian Kingdom, the most powerful state of the Ancient Thracians, and lived independently until the 1st century AD when they were conquered by the Roman Empire (all of Ancient Thrace south of the Danube was conquered by the Romans in 46 AD).
During the Roman and Late Antiquity period, the Kaleto Fortress near Bulgaria’s Mezdra was the site of a Roman fortification built in the middle of the 2nd century AD, a pagan cult center from the 3rd century AD, and a Late Roman and Early Byzantine fortified settlement during the 4th-6th century AD. The pagan cult center was also built on top of the prehistoric Taurus shrine and the shrine of the Ancient Thracian tribe Triballi, and the archaeological layers are distinctly visible even today.
From this period, the Bulgarian archaeologists have discovered a lot of bronze coins of Roman Emperors Dometian (r. 81-96 AD), Claudius II Gothicus (r. 268-270 AD), and Marcus Aurelius Probus (r. 276-282 AD) as well as bronze fibulas, belt decorations, a silver leaf from a laurel wreath, and a bronze statuette of an eagle found under the fortress wall.
The eagle statuette is one of the earliest known depictions of its kind; it symbolized the supreme Roman god Jupiter (equivalent to Zeus in the Ancient Greek mythology) and was the emblem of the Roman Empire standing for power and might. Another impressive Roman artifact found in Mezdra’s Kaleto Fortress is a bronze key discovered amidst the ruins of a large public building.
The Late Antiquity and Early Byzantine fortification in Mezdra existed until the end of the 6th or the beginning of the 7th century when it was destroyed in a barbarian invasion of Avars and Slavs ushering into the fortress’s medieval period. The latest Antiquity coins found in Mezdra are from the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justine II (r. 565-578 AD). During the Migration Period of the Early Middle Ages, the fortress was destroyed and rebuilt several times after barbarian invasions.
The last “barbarian” people to arrive were the Slavs followed by the Ancient Bulgars at the end of the 7th century AD who set up an Ancient Bulgar fortress on top of the ancient ruins. The Bulgar fortress thrived during the period of the First Bulgarian Empire (632/680-1018 AD) and was known as Torbaritsa. The Torbaritsa Fotress was destroyed at the beginning of the 11th century by the Byzantines under Emperor Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer (r. 976-1025 AD) who eventually conquered all of the First Bulgarian Empire. The fortress was also used during the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1396 AD) but was demolished by the invading Ottoman Turks after their conquest of Bulgaria at the end of the 14th century.
The Archaeological Complex “Kaleto” in Bulgaria’s Mezdra was opened in 2013 after the partial restoration and conservation of the prehistoric, ancient, and medieval fortification and settlement under a BGN 3.9 million (app. EUR 2 million) project of which BGN 3.1 million (EUR 1.6 million) was EU funding under Operational Program “Regional Development”. The Kaleto Fortress is often referred to by the locals as “Mezdra’s Stone Treasure”.