Broken Water Pipe Floods Newly Exposed Ruins of Ancient Roman Forum in Bulgaria’s Plovdiv
The recently excavated ruins of the Ancient Roman Forum in the southern Bulgarian city of Plovdiv have been flooded as a result of the breakdown of a nearby water supply pipe.
Lead archaeologist Elena Kisyakova alerted the Plovdiv fire brigade, with the fire fighters starting to pump out the water immediately, reports bTV.
Nonetheless, the water continued to pour onto the excavation site of the Western Propilaea, i.e. monumental gateway, of the Ancient Forum in the Southern Bulgarian city of Plovdiv for more than three hours.
The water supply could not be stopped immediately by the local water utility because the same pipeline provides water to a nearby hospital with ongoing surgical operations.
According to the water utility, the pipeline was undermined during the recent expansion of the archaeological excavations leaving it hanging in the air which caused it to break down.
Some damage has been done to the archaeological layers exposed by the researchers who were supposed to complete the digs of Plovdiv’s Roman Forum by the end of November, and to have the site inspected by a commission from Bulgaria’s Ministry of Culture.
The flooding damaged the signs and pointers placed by the archaeologists for the upcoming photographing of the entire site which was supposed to take place before the visit of the commission.
The surviving ancient structures have not been torn down by the water, and all artifacts discovered there recently had been removed from the site, and taken to the Plovdiv Museum of Archaeology long before the flooding, according to later reports.
The archaeologists are now going to have to clean up the site of the Roman Forum in order to prepare it for the upcoming inspection.
The excavations of the Western Propilaea of the Ancient Forum of Plovdiv, which was known as Philipopolis in the Hellenistic Period (after it was conquered by King Phillip II of Macedon in 342 AD), and as Trimontium in the Ancient Roman period (after all of Ancient Thrace was annexed by the Romans in 46 AD), were resumed in June 2015.
The archaeological site is located next to the Central Post Office in the downtown of the city of Plovdiv.
In the summer of 2014, the local archaeologists discovered there a male marble statue and a female marble bust on a pedestal dating to the height of the Roman Empire – the 2nd-3rd century AD.
In their digs so far, the archaeologists led by Elena Kisyakova have unearthed artifacts dating from the 1st until the 12th century AD because the location of the Ancient Forum harbored a residential quarter in the Middle Ages.
The homes there were destroyed in the Late Middle Ages, likely as a result of the Ottoman invasion of the medieval Bulgarian Empire and the entire Balkan Peninsula, and residential life there was resumed in the 17th-18th century AD.
The southern Bulgarian city of Plovdiv is also known as Europe’s oldest city.
The history of the southern Bulgarian city of Plovdiv – often dubbed the oldest city in Europe – began with the human settlement on the ancient hill of Nebet Tepe (“tepe” is the Turkish word for “hill”) is one of the seven historic hills where today’s Bulgarian city of Plovdiv was founded and developed in prehistoric and ancient times.
The hills, or “tepeta”, are still known today by their Turkish names from the Ottoman period. Out of all of them, Nebet Tepe has the earliest traces of civilized life dating back to the 6th millennium BC, which makes Plovdiv 8,000 years old, and allegedly the oldest city in Europe. Around 1200 BC, the prehistoric settlement on Nebet Tepe was transformed into the Ancient Thracian city of Eumolpia, also known as Pulpudeva, inhabited by the powerful Ancient Thracian tribe Bessi.
During the Early Antiquity period Eumolpia / Pulpudeva grew to encompass the two nearby hills (Dzhambaz Tepe and Taxim Tepe known together with Nebet Tepe as “The Three Hills”) as well, with the oldest settlement on Nebet Tepe becoming the citadel of the city acropolis.
In 342 BC, the Thracian city of Eumolpia / Pulpudeva was conquered by King Philip II of Macedon renaming the city to Philippopolis. Philippopolis developed further as a major urban center during the Hellenistic period after the collapse of Alexander the Great’s Empire.
In the 1st century AD, more precisely in 46 AD, Ancient Thrace was annexed by the Roman Empire making Philippopolis the major city in the Ancient Roman province of Thrace. This is the period when the city expanded further into the plain around The Three Hills which is why it was also known as Trimontium (“the three hills”).
Because of the large scale public construction works during the period of Ancient Rome’s Flavian Dynasty (69-96 AD, including Emperor Vespasian (r. 69-79 AD), Emperor Titus (r. 79-81 AD), Emperor Domitian (r. 81-96 AD)), Plovdiv was also known as Flavia Philippopolis.
Later emerging as a major Early Byzantine city, Plovdiv was conquered for the First Bulgarian Empire (632/680 – 1018 AD) by Khan (or Kanas) Krum (r. 803-814 AD) in 812 AD but was permanently incorporated into Bulgaria under Khan (or Kanas) Malamir (r. 831-836 AD) in 834 AD.
In Old Bulgarian (also known today as Church Slavonic), the city’s name was recorded as Papaldin, Paldin, and Pladin, and later Plavdiv from which today’s name Plovdiv originated. The Nebet Tepe fortress continued to be an important part of the city’s fortifications until the 14th century when the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1396 AD) was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. During the period the Ottoman yoke (1396-1878/1912) when Bulgaria was part of the Ottoman Empire, Plovdiv was called Filibe in Turkish.
Today the prehistoric, ancient, and medieval settlement on Nebet Tepe has been recognized as the Nebet Tepe Archaeological Preserve. Some of the unique archaeological finds from Nebet Tepe include an ancient secret tunnel which, according to legends, was used by Apostle Paul (even though it has been dated to the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I the Great (r. 527-565 AD)) and large scale water storage reservoirs used during sieges, one of them with an impressive volume of 300,000 liters. Still preserved today are parts of the western fortress wall with a rectangular tower from the Antiquity period.